Difference between revisions of "Arduino C Grammar"

From SainSmart Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(Created page with "Arduino grammar is built on the basis of C/C + +, in fact is also the basic C grammar, Arduino grammar not only put some related parameters Settings are function change, we ha...")
 
 
Line 2: Line 2:
  
 
=== Control Structures ===
 
=== Control Structures ===
  If  
+
 
 +
  If
 +
   
 
  if...else
 
  if...else
 +
 
  for
 
  for
 +
 
  switch case
 
  switch case
 +
 
  while
 
  while
 +
 
  do... while
 
  do... while
 +
 
  break
 
  break
 +
 
  continue
 
  continue
 +
 
  return
 
  return
 +
 
  goto
 
  goto
  
 
=== Further Syntax ===
 
=== Further Syntax ===
 +
 
  ;
 
  ;
 +
 
  {}
 
  {}
 +
 
  //
 
  //
 +
 
  /* */
 
  /* */
 
   
 
   
 
=== Operators ===
 
=== Operators ===
 +
 
   ++
 
   ++
 +
 
   --
 
   --
 +
 
   +=
 
   +=
 +
 
   -=
 
   -=
 +
 
  *=
 
  *=
 +
 
  /=
 
  /=
 +
 
   =
 
   =
 +
 
  +
 
  +
 +
 
   -
 
   -
 +
 
  *
 
  *
 +
 
  /
 
  /
 +
 
  %
 
  %
 +
 
  ==
 
  ==
 +
 
  !=
 
  !=
 +
 
  <
 
  <
 +
 
  >
 
  >
 +
 
  <=
 
  <=
 +
 
  >=
 
  >=
 +
 
  &&
 
  &&
 +
 
  ||
 
  ||
 +
 
  !
 
  !
  
 
=== Data type ===
 
=== Data type ===
  boolean
+
 
  char   
+
==== boolean ====
 +
 +
  char  
 +
   
 
  byte
 
  byte
 +
 
  int
 
  int
 +
 
  unsigned int
 
  unsigned int
 +
 
  long
 
  long
 +
 
  unsigned long
 
  unsigned long
 +
 
  float
 
  float
 +
 
  double
 
  double
 +
 
  string
 
  string
 +
 
  array
 
  array
 +
 
  void
 
  void
  
=== Constant ===
+
==== Constant ====
 +
 
 
   HIGH | LOW  Said digital IO port level, HIGH  Said high level(1), LOW  Said low electric flat(0).
 
   HIGH | LOW  Said digital IO port level, HIGH  Said high level(1), LOW  Said low electric flat(0).
   INPUT | OUTPUT  Said digital IO port direction, INPUT  Said input (high impedance state)                   
+
 
 +
   INPUT | OUTPUT  Said digital IO port direction, INPUT  Said input (high impedance state)  
 +
                  
 
   OUTPUT Said output (AVR can provide 5 v voltage and ma current).
 
   OUTPUT Said output (AVR can provide 5 v voltage and ma current).
 +
 
   TURE | FALSE true(1) , false(0).
 
   TURE | FALSE true(1) , false(0).
  
 
All above are the basic c grammar words and symbols, everybody can understand, and the specific use can combine experimental procedure.
 
All above are the basic c grammar words and symbols, everybody can understand, and the specific use can combine experimental procedure.
  
=== Structure ===
+
==== Structure ====
void setup()
+
 
 +
*void setup()
 +
 
The setup() function is called when a sketch starts. Use it to initialize variables, pin modes, start using libraries, etc. The setup function will only run once, after each power up or reset of the Arduino board.
 
The setup() function is called when a sketch starts. Use it to initialize variables, pin modes, start using libraries, etc. The setup function will only run once, after each power up or reset of the Arduino board.
void loop()
+
 
 +
*void loop()
 +
 
 
After creating a setup() function, which initializes and sets the initial values, the loop() function does precisely what its name suggests, and loops consecutively, allowing your program to change and respond. Use it to actively control the Arduino board.
 
After creating a setup() function, which initializes and sets the initial values, the loop() function does precisely what its name suggests, and loops consecutively, allowing your program to change and respond. Use it to actively control the Arduino board.
  
 
==== Function ====
 
==== Function ====
Digital I/O
+
 
 +
*Digital I/O
 +
 
 
pinMode(pin, mode)  pin 0~13, mode is input or output.  
 
pinMode(pin, mode)  pin 0~13, mode is input or output.  
 +
 
digitalWrite(pin, value) pin 0~13, value is HIGH or LOW.
 
digitalWrite(pin, value) pin 0~13, value is HIGH or LOW.
 +
 
int digitalRead(pin) pin 0~13, value is HIGH or LOW.
 
int digitalRead(pin) pin 0~13, value is HIGH or LOW.
Analog I/O
+
 
 +
*Analog I/O
 +
 
 
int analogRead(pin) pin 0~5.
 
int analogRead(pin) pin 0~5.
 +
 
analogWrite(pin, value) pin 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, value is 0 to 255  
 
analogWrite(pin, value) pin 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, value is 0 to 255  
  
 
==== Time ====
 
==== Time ====
 +
 
delay(ms)Pauses the program for the amount of time (in miliseconds) specified as parameter. (There are 1000 milliseconds in a second.)(unit ms).
 
delay(ms)Pauses the program for the amount of time (in miliseconds) specified as parameter. (There are 1000 milliseconds in a second.)(unit ms).
 +
 
delayMicroseconds(us)  
 
delayMicroseconds(us)  
  
==== Math ====    
+
==== Math ====
 +
   
 
min(x, y) minimum value
 
min(x, y) minimum value
 +
 
max(x, y) maximum value
 
max(x, y) maximum value
 +
 
abs(x) absolute value
 
abs(x) absolute value
 +
 
constrain(x, a, b) Constraint function, lower limit a upper limit b, x must be between a & b to be returned
 
constrain(x, a, b) Constraint function, lower limit a upper limit b, x must be between a & b to be returned
map(value, fromLow, fromHigh, toLow, toHigh)
+
 
 +
map(value, fromLow, fromHigh, toLow, toHigh)
 +
 
pow(base, exponent) extraction of square root
 
pow(base, exponent) extraction of square root
 +
 
sq(x) square
 
sq(x) square
 +
 
sqrt(x) Square root
 
sqrt(x) Square root

Latest revision as of 06:58, 14 June 2013

Arduino grammar is built on the basis of C/C + +, in fact is also the basic C grammar, Arduino grammar not only put some related parameters Settings are function change, we have no need to understand his bottom, let us to know AVR micro control unit (MCU) friend can also easy to fit in. So here I'll simple comment the Arduino grammar.

Control Structures

  If

  if...else

  for

  switch case

  while

  do... while

  break

  continue

  return

  goto

Further Syntax

  ;

  {}

  //

  /* */

Operators

  ++
  --
  +=
  -=

  *=

  /=

  =

  +

  -

  *

  /

  %

  ==

  !=

  <

  >

  <=

  >=

  &&

  ||

  !

Data type

boolean

  char

  byte

  int

  unsigned int

  long

  unsigned long

  float

  double

  string

  array

  void

Constant

  HIGH | LOW  Said digital IO port level, HIGH  Said high level(1), LOW  Said low electric flat(0).
  INPUT | OUTPUT  Said digital IO port direction, INPUT  Said input (high impedance state) 
                
  OUTPUT Said output (AVR can provide 5 v voltage and ma current).
  TURE | FALSE true(1) , false(0).

All above are the basic c grammar words and symbols, everybody can understand, and the specific use can combine experimental procedure.

Structure

  • void setup()

The setup() function is called when a sketch starts. Use it to initialize variables, pin modes, start using libraries, etc. The setup function will only run once, after each power up or reset of the Arduino board.

  • void loop()

After creating a setup() function, which initializes and sets the initial values, the loop() function does precisely what its name suggests, and loops consecutively, allowing your program to change and respond. Use it to actively control the Arduino board.

Function

  • Digital I/O

pinMode(pin, mode) pin 0~13, mode is input or output.

digitalWrite(pin, value) pin 0~13, value is HIGH or LOW.

int digitalRead(pin) pin 0~13, value is HIGH or LOW.

  • Analog I/O

int analogRead(pin) pin 0~5.

analogWrite(pin, value) pin 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, value is 0 to 255

Time

delay(ms)Pauses the program for the amount of time (in miliseconds) specified as parameter. (There are 1000 milliseconds in a second.)(unit ms).

delayMicroseconds(us)

Math

  min(x, y) minimum value

max(x, y) maximum value

abs(x) absolute value

constrain(x, a, b) Constraint function, lower limit a upper limit b, x must be between a & b to be returned

map(value, fromLow, fromHigh, toLow, toHigh)

pow(base, exponent) extraction of square root

sq(x) square

sqrt(x) Square root